1.) What methods did group(s) use to express their frustrations and ultimately lead to a revolution?
Joseph Ejercito Estrada, also known as Erap, was voted into presidency by his popularity with the masses. He was a well known actor who often played the role of the tough guy from a poor neighborhood that defended the people. The Actor-turned-politician represented hope for the people. He was a president overwhelmingly elected by the poor. The Erap administration was rocked by scandal. The main event was that there was a bank account under a false name, with over 3 billion pesos in deposits, and that was traced back to Erap. Previous to this, he was criticized for his ostentatious personal lifestyle. Previous to that were the taped conversations between Erap and the Gambling Lord, Atong Ang. Erap’s mistake was to block the Senate hearing, causing the people to believe that there was no transparency in government. Moments after the pro-administrations solons stopped the opening of the second envelope in the then-ongoing impeachment trial of Joseph Ejercito Estrada, EDSA 2 was born. The end of the Erap presidency was 7 years ago, on Jan 20, 2001.Gloria Macapagal Arroyo took power from her disgraced predecessor. General Angelo Reyes withdrew military support on Jan 19, 2001. National interest took more importance than personal friendships, causing generals that were friends of Erap to join the defection. The media played a key role by exposing the truth about the Estrada administration. News channels such as abs-cbn filmed footage of the trials and important speeches to assist in portraying the facts. They featured all of his mistakes and flaws. They highlighted his gambling, drinking and immortality. Using surveillance cameras at a casino, the media documented Joseph Estrada gambling millions of pesos with Atong Ang. Due to the footage; Estrada was unable to deny the accusations. Additionally, a news station filmed Estrada saying the count down for the New Year how ever he was unable to do so due to intoxication. People from Estrada's cabinet and economic advisers as well as other members of congress withdrew their support. . Archbishop Cardinal Sin, the Catholic church, former Presidents Corazon Aquino and Fidel Ramos, as well as Vice President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo deserted Estrada. The defection of the military and the appeal from Cardinal Sin (representing the Catholic Church) to the people prompted the support of a huge crowd in EDSA within hours. There people shared stories of discontent, played songs against the government, “Go 2 EDSA. Wer ol hir,” read the texts. Hours later, 50,000 people had jammed the intersection of EDSA and Ortigas Avenue, shouting “Erap resign!,” bringing with them all sorts of colors and banners. Much has been said about the role of texting and the People Power 2 uprising. It is known as the “texters’ revolution.” The Philippine Daily Inquirer, the nation's most popular broadsheet newspaper, printed exposes about Erap daily. He counteracted by charging them with "bias, malice and fabrication." His unpopularity was increasing. The defection of the military and the appeal from Cardinal Sin (representing the Catholic Church) to the people prompted the support of a huge crowd in EDSA within hours. There people shared stories of discontent, played songs against the government, “Go 2 EDSA. Wer ol hir,” read the texts. Hours later, 50,000 people had jammed the intersection of EDSA and Ortigas Avenue, shouting “Erap resign!,” bringing with them all sorts of colors and banners. Much has been said about the role of texting and the People Power 2 uprising. It is known as the “texters’ revolution.”What most other presidents used as a tool was no longer available to him. He had lost the respect of the media. No radio station broadcast except for “Radyo Bandido.” The 2-day EDSA shrine vigil was started by a move of Estrada’s 11 allies to vote against the opening of a document linking him to a P3.3 billion bank account. The government leaders tried to impeach him, claiming due plunder and immorality. Impeachment trial aborted by government prompted Cardinal Sin, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo (his Vice President) and Corazon Aquino (previous president) to join the thousands of people at the EDSA Shrine. The EDSA 2 is best described by the words of the late Cardinal Sin, “there are only few evil people in the government. But there are millions of Filipinos that would fight (and even die) for the truth.” EDSA 2 was a successful call to the people to become involved. It was born from growing anti-ERAP sentiment supported by the actions of the church and his co-government people. It resulted in the Estrada family escaping on a barge from Malacanang, scampering across to the other side of the river. Estrada was convicted of plunder and was put under house arrest in Tanay Rizal until 2007. He was pardoned in Dec 2007
The defection of the military and the appeal from Cardinal Sin (representing the Catholic Church) to the people prompted the support of a huge crowd in EDSA within hours. There people shared stories of discontent, played songs against the government, “Go 2 EDSA. Wer ol hir,” read the texts. Hours later, 50,000 people had jammed the intersection of EDSA and Ortigas Avenue, shouting “Erap resign!,” bringing with them all sorts of colors and banners. Much has been said about the role of texting and the People Power 2 uprising. It is known as the “texters’ revolution.”The government leaders tried to impeach him, claiming due plunder and immorality. Impeachment trial aborted by government prompted Cardinal Sin, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo (his Vice President) and Corazon Aquino (previous president) to join the thousands of people at the EDSA Shrine. It resulted in the Estrada family escaping on a barge from Malacanang, scampering across to the other side of the river. Estrada was convicted of plunder and was put under house arrest in Tanay Rizal until 2007. He was pardoned in Dec 2007 2.) How is your revolution similar and/or different to one of the revolutions previously studied?
Between the American Revolution and the second people power movement of the Philippines, there are a number of similarities and differences between the two. Unlike the American Revolution against Britain, people power II in the Philippines was a four day, bloodless revolution that peacefully got rid of President Joseph Estrada. The American Revolution however took many years to get what they wished for and instead of opposing a leader; they were fighting for their independence as a country. There is quite some difference in the way the two revolutions began. The revolution in America first began when the lower classes expressed their economic restraints when Britain forced taxes upon the people. Although the revolution of the Philippines began when the truth about President Estrada’s gambling, stealing and corruption was revealed. In both situations, a group of intellectuals deserted the government. In the Philippines former presidents Corazon Aquino and Fidel Ramos withdrew their support as well as vice president at the time Gloria Macapagal arroyo. The Catholic Church as well as archbishop cardinal sin no longer supported Estrada. In America, colonists formed together to protest against Great Britain and secret societies such as the sons of liberty were formed.
In both revolutions, there was an escalation of anger where the people rose up against the government. In America, colonists who disguised themselves as Indians, boarded a ship and tossed 342 chests of tea into the Boston harbor as a challenge to British authority. They additionally decided to stop al trade. However in the Philippines, large masses of people gathered at the EDSA shrine to protest against Erap and standing grounds for his resignation. Additionally, unlike the Philippines the American Revolution included two main battles at Lexington and concord where people were injured and killed. EDSA dos, on the other hand did not include any bloodshed whatsoever. People power II occurred at a rate so rapid that it was difficult for a new government to step in. Although in America, a new government called the continental congress was formed. After both revolutions had ended, strong rulers came to power and stabilized the country. After the American Revolution, the declaration of independence was formed and America became its own country, no longer under the British rule. George Washington then became the president of United States of America as constitutions for the whole country were formed. After the revolution in the Philippines, the government did not change however. President Joseph Estrada had stepped down and vice president Gloria Macapagal Arroyo became the 14th Philippine president.
3.) What was the eventual outcome of the revolution, and did the nation/people become better due to the revolution?
Estrada today claims to be a victim of the church and the elite. Because of the outrage of political abuse, EDSA 2 took place. The common Filipino joined forces to form a collective voice. Has the basic driving force, that of transparency in government dealings, been betrayed? Has the present government really managed to live up to the expectations of the masses that placed them there? Has the political international rating of the Philippines improved? At this point in time, the main person that triggered EDSA two is free. The Estrada Administration was kicked out due to plunder. The existing president, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo was appointed president to fill the vacuum. The GMA party was initially described internationally as Mob rule, an elitist backlash against a president that had risen from the masses. But, the new administration, the Arroyo government, was plagued by the “Hello Garci” scandal. This pointed out the rigging election results during her 2004 second term. There has been political unrest and instability, coup attempts and impeachment actions in Congress. Is GMA setting aside the very movement that put her into power?
Archbishop Jaime Cardinal Sin received an order from the Vatican; Rome played a major role in EDSA 1 in 1986. But had Cardinal Sin had followed the church’s order, the revolution could have failed or become a bloody war. Sin’s strength in leading the people comes from the public’s perception of him as being a man of honesty and high moral value. An absence of such a strong, spiritual leader is being cited as the reason that the recent Trillanes (rebel-turned- senator) coupe on November 29, 2007 failed. The church plays a strong role in the Philippines. Does the existing government have the critical mass support? Erap said it is the day democracy died in the Philippines. Not all allies support the president. Since GMA took power, they stopped celebrating EDSA 2. Senator Loren Legarda is still questioning legitimacy of Macapagal-Arroyo’s presidency. She claims that GMA and De Castro cheated during the 2004 elections. Have the Filipino people learned that a system is needed to monitor government deals? Has political corruption decreased from the time the people joined forces to oust the president? The Filipinos succeeded in removing a leader that committed obvious crimes. Have they managed to remove such practices from the Philippine government system?
4.) Was the revolution justified? Would other methods have worked?
The Philippine revolution was justified because nothing they did was violent. This sets a good example for the rest of the world that they can still change what is wrong in their country by getting involved and letting their voice be heard. In the Philippines during EDSA dos, no body committed any acts that threatened Joseph Estrada (Erap) which would’ve been an unjustifiable act, but since no one did, and then it is just another reason to why this revolution was justified. Since the army did not shoot anyone, or fire anyone this would be another reason to why this revolution could be a justifiable one. A method that could have helped this revolution could have been a petition, and since so many people went to the EDSA shrine, they could have all signed it for their soul purpose. In the end, this revolution was justified over all because they got what they wanted without performing any acts of violence. 5.) Briefly state whether or not your revolution follows Crane Brinton’s Stages of Revolution.
5.) Briefly state whether or not your revolution follows Crane Brinton's states of revolution.
The EDSA II revolution does fit the Brinton Crane’s analogy of a revolution although it does have its similarities and differences. For example, in phase one of a revolution, the middle class expressed their anger by having protest occuring almost every week. Additionally, in phase one, the Estrada's administration was ineffective because Erap was keeping money for himself and taking it from the savings of the Philippines, which would be a chronic money shortage. Lastly, intellectuals, or the military left the government, which is exactly what the military of the Philippines did. The Philippine revolution also fits into phase two, for example, the middle class’ anger escalades. It also doesn’t fit here because there was no battle, which would have been against people power and how they promote nonviolence. It works in the third phase because the revolution was fragile since the Philippines had less money than they should’ve had. But it also doesn’t fit into this phase because this phase says that acts of violence need to be preformed, but since none were it simply won’t fit. Last but not least, this revolution fits into Brinton Crane’s analogy of a revolution because it also fits into phase four, which would mean that the revolution ends and that the Philippines entered a period of recovery. It also means that a strong ruler comes to power, and that would be Gloria. Not only that, but also life in the country goes back to a normal state, which is what we live in today. In the end, EDSA dos does fit into this analogy and is proven a revolution.
"EDSA Revolution of 2001." 5 February 2008 . 5 Feb 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EDSA_Dos>.
Hahn, Lorraine. "Former Philippines President Joseph Estrada TalkAsia Interview." 4 Feb. 2005. CNN. 5 Feb 2008 <http://edition.cnn.com/2005/WORLD/asiapcf/02/04/talkasia.estrada.script/index.html>.